Global Sanitation Fund

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The Global Sanitation Fund (GSF) is a programme of the Water Supply and Sanitation Collaborative Council (WSSCC) which aims to support communities with lack of access to sanitation facilities change their behavior in relation to sanitation and hygiene practices. The GSF respects the leadership of the Government and recognizes the role of Non Governmental Organizations (NGOs), Community Based Organizations (CBOs) and schools for community mobilization and awareness for hygiene and sanitation promotion. The GSF programme in Nepal adopted Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan-2011 as a guiding document and aims to promote hygiene and sanitation using the total sanitation approach under the leadership of local government bodies such as District Development Committees (DDC), municipalities and Village Development Committees (VDC).


Nepal is one of the recipient countries of the GSF. The Steering Committee for National Sanitation Action (SCNSA) in coordination with the Ministry of Physical Planning and Works (MPPW) developed the Scope of Work (SoW) for GSF in Nepal, based on which, all activities have been designed. The GSF supported programme in Nepal aims to help government and stakeholders achieve the National Goal (NG) of universal sanitation coverage by 2017 and sanitation Millennium Development Goal (MDG) of 53% by 2015, with focus on achieving Open Defecation Free (ODF) status and promoting hygiene behaviours.

GSF targets 6 Municipalities (Tikapur, Gulariya, Inaruwa, Itahari Bhaktapur and Thimi Madhyapur) and 205 VDCs in 6 Districts (Arghakhanchi, Bajura, Bardiya, Sindhupalchowk, Sunsari and Bhaktapur). GSF also targets three Sanitation Model Districts (SMDs) – Chitwan, Kaski and Tanahun to boost ongoing total sanitation initiatives including post-ODF interventions. The GSF programme, which was launched in Nepal on 7th October 2010, works through proven approaches on sanitation and hygiene such as Community Led Total Sanitation (CLTS) and Sanitation Marketing. Schools and communities are therefore recognized as the key actors and catalyst of change and are placed at the centre of overall GSF programme interventions.

The GSF works in close coordination with VDCs, municipalities, DDCs, Regional Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committees (R-WASH-CC), District Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committees (D-WASH-CCs), Municipality Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committees (M-WASH-CC) and Village Water Supply, Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committees (V-WASH-CC). The GSF programme activities are planned to be executed within the planning and implementation frameworks of Strategic Plan/Plan of Action of government local bodies. As per Nepal’s SoW, local government bodies (DDCs and municipalities), NGOs and private firms are eligible to apply for Sub-grantees for implementing GSF programme.


The GSF in Nepal is being implemented in 6 districts and 6 municipalities covering all development regions as well as all ecological regions–mountain, hill and tarai.The 6 districts are Arghakhanchi,Bajura, Bardiya, Sindhupalchowk Sunsari and Bhaktapur . The GSF programme also supports three Sanitation Model Districts (Chitwan,Kaski and Tanahun) to back up total sanitation initiatives and the WASH sector as a whole to share good practices and assist in the implementation of the National Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan, 2011.


  1. Stimulate community actions for achieving Open Defecation Free (ODF) status through demand driven approaches.
  2. Develop the capacity of stakeholders at all levels through triggering and mass sensitizing activities.
  3. Strengthen national sanitation sector strategies with the implementation of the Strategic Plan/Plan of Action at district,municipality and VDC levels.
  4. Promote knowledge management through collection and dissemination of best practices and lessons learn


National Sanitation and Hygiene Coordination Committee (NSHCC): NSHCC gives strategic guidance and supervision to the GSF programme in Nepal in order to ensure alignment with national sector policies, strategies and the Master Plan. NSHCC is a multi-stakeholders’ platform led by the government.

Executing Agency (EA): EA administers the fund, including the award of grants in response to proposals,technical support to Sub-grantees and monitoring.

Country Programme Monitor (CPM): CPM monitors the performance of EA and it’s Sub-grantees in terms of financial administration and achievement of the objectives of the GSF programme in Nepal, using log frame indicators.CSC&CO is the CPM for GSF in Nepal.

Sub-grantees : Sub-grantees are the implementing agencies for GSF programme. Local bodies, NGOs and CBOs are eligible agencies to work as the Sub-grantees


Policy enabler: Support for localizing Sanitation and Hygiene Master Plan 2011.
Ownership and institutionalization: Integrationand linkage with government programme through local level Strategic Plan/Plan of Action led by local bodies.
Stakeholders Participation: Recognition of multi-stakeholders efforts in central,regional, district, municipality and VDC levels
Campaign: Adoption of wider campaign approach to back up on going sanitation movement.
Sustainability: Resource pooling, cost-sharing and local leaders



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